Find out how diseases can transfer from animals to humans, learn about toxoplasma gondii and discover the benefits of pet therapy.SUBSCRIBE TO BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES REVIEW
Zoonoses are infectious diseases of animals that can be transmitted to humans. There are approximately 40 such diseases in the UK, varying from minor irritations to conditions that can prove fatal.
Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite that commonly infects cats, and warns that it can cause serious health problems for babies born to mothers infected with the protozoan. The infection can also cause serious complications for people with compromised immune systems, such as those infected with HIV.
Subscribe to Biological Sciences Review Magazine NowSUBSCRIPTIONS START FROM £40
“Toxoplasma might even kill as many people as malaria, or at least a million people a year,” warns Prolific Biologist Jaroslav Flegr, who has been working on this theory for decades.
This idea is supported in findings from neuroendocrinology researcher and author Robert Sapolsky, who reported that the toxoplasma parasite can make rats run towards their main predator – cats – and over-write their innate aversion to them.
This video shows rats attacking cats:
An analysis of 17 studies that investigate the impact of owning pets on their owners has found that they can help with conditions such as depression, PTSD, stress and loneliness, reported The Independent.
Pet therapy has also been found to:
Explore all of our Doctor-created interview prep in one place.
Stand out with our one-day Medical School Interview Course - delivered by Doctors. Get proven strategies and a real mock interview.
The most popular way to prepare! Our Doctor-created MMI Prep Course is trusted by thousands of students every year.
Turn medical school interviews into offers. Get Doctor-designed strategies, delivered by top Medical School Interview Tutors.
Loading More Content
Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. These cookies ensure basic functionalities and security features of the website, anonymously.
|__cfduid||1 month||The cookie is used by cdn services like CloudFlare to identify individual clients behind a shared IP address and apply security settings on a per-client basis. It does not correspond to any user ID in the web application and does not store any personally identifiable information.|
|__hssrc||session||This cookie is set by Hubspot. According to their documentation, whenever HubSpot changes the session cookie, this cookie is also set to determine if the visitor has restarted their browser. If this cookie does not exist when HubSpot manages cookies, it is considered a new session.|
|cookielawinfo-checbox-analytics||11 months||This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Analytics".|
|cookielawinfo-checbox-functional||11 months||The cookie is set by GDPR cookie consent to record the user consent for the cookies in the category "Functional".|
|cookielawinfo-checbox-others||11 months||This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Other.|
|cookielawinfo-checkbox-advertisement||1 year||The cookie is set by GDPR cookie consent to record the user consent for the cookies in the category "Advertisement".|
|cookielawinfo-checkbox-necessary||11 months||This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. The cookies is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Necessary".|
|cookielawinfo-checkbox-performance||11 months||This cookie is set by GDPR Cookie Consent plugin. The cookie is used to store the user consent for the cookies in the category "Performance".|
|JSESSIONID||session||Used by sites written in JSP. General purpose platform session cookies that are used to maintain users' state across page requests.|
|PHPSESSID||session||This cookie is native to PHP applications. The cookie is used to store and identify a users' unique session ID for the purpose of managing user session on the website. The cookie is a session cookies and is deleted when all the browser windows are closed.|
|sbjs_first_add||5 months 27 days||This cookie is to identify the source of a visit and store user action information about it in a cookies. This is a analytic and behavioural cookie used for improving the visitor experience on the website.|
Functional cookies help to perform certain functionalities like sharing the content of the website on social media platforms, collect feedbacks, and other third-party features.
|__cf_bm||30 minutes||This cookie, set by Cloudflare, is used to support Cloudflare Bot Management.|
|__hssc||30 minutes||This cookie is set by HubSpot. The purpose of the cookie is to keep track of sessions. This is used to determine if HubSpot should increment the session number and timestamps in the __hstc cookie. It contains the domain, viewCount (increments each pageView in a session), and session start timestamp.|
|__stripe_mid||1 year||Stipe cookie to provide fraud prevention.|
|__stripe_sid||30 minutes||Stripe cookie to provide fraud prevention.|
|mailchimp_landing_site||1 month||The cookie is set by MailChimp to record which page the user first visited.|
|woocommerce_cart_hash||1 day||Used to store items in shopping cart.|
|woocommerce_items_in_cart||Session||Used to store the number of items in shopping cart.|
|wp_woocommerce_session_*||Session||Used to store performed actions on the website.|
Performance cookies are used to understand and analyze the key performance indexes of the website which helps in delivering a better user experience for the visitors.
|SRM_B||1 year 24 days||Used by Microsoft Advertising as a unique ID for visitors.|
|YSC||session||This cookies is set by Youtube and is used to track the views of embedded videos.|
Analytical cookies are used to understand how visitors interact with the website. These cookies help provide information on metrics the number of visitors, bounce rate, traffic source, etc.
|__hstc||1 year 24 days||This cookie is set by Hubspot and is used for tracking visitors. It contains the domain, utk, initial timestamp (first visit), last timestamp (last visit), current timestamp (this visit), and session number (increments for each subsequent session).|
|_ga||2 years||This cookie is installed by Google Analytics. The cookie is used to calculate visitor, session, campaign data and keep track of site usage for the site's analytics report. The cookies store information anonymously and assign a randomly generated number to identify unique visitors.|
|_gat_UA-61748161-1||1 minute||This is a pattern type cookie set by Google Analytics, where the pattern element on the name contains the unique identity number of the account or website it relates to. It appears to be a variation of the _gat cookie which is used to limit the amount of data recorded by Google on high traffic volume websites.|
|_gcl_au||3 months||Provided by Google Tag Manager to experiment advertisement efficiency of websites using their services.|
|_gid||1 day||This cookie is installed by Google Analytics. The cookie is used to store information of how visitors use a website and helps in creating an analytics report of how the website is doing. The data collected including the number visitors, the source where they have come from, and the pages visted in an anonymous form.|
|_hjAbsoluteSessionInProgress||30 minutes||Hotjar sets this cookie to detect the first pageview session of a user. This is a True/False flag set by the cookie.|
|_hjFirstSeen||30 minutes||Hotjar sets this cookie to identify a new user’s first session. It stores a true/false value, indicating whether it was the first time Hotjar saw this user.|
|_hjIncludedInPageviewSample||2 minutes||Hotjar sets this cookie to know whether a user is included in the data sampling defined by the site's pageview limit.|
|_hjTLDTest||session||To determine the most generic cookie path that has to be used instead of the page hostname, Hotjar sets the _hjTLDTest cookie to store different URL substring alternatives until it fails.|
|_uetsid||1 day||This cookies are used to collect analytical information about how visitors use the website. This information is used to compile report and improve site.|
|hubspotutk||1 year 24 days||This cookie is used by HubSpot to keep track of the visitors to the website. This cookie is passed to Hubspot on form submission and used when deduplicating contacts.|
|sbjs_current||5 months 27 days||This cookie is to identify the source of a visit and store user action information about it in a cookies. This is a analytic and behavioural cookie used for improving the visitor experience on the website.|
|sbjs_current_add||5 months 27 days||This cookie is to identify the source of a visit and store user action information about it in a cookies. This is a analytic and behavioural cookie used for improving the visitor experience on the website.|
|sbjs_first||5 months 27 days|
|sbjs_migrations||5 months 27 days|
|sbjs_udata||5 months 27 days|
|vuid||2 years||This domain of this cookie is owned by Vimeo. This cookie is used by vimeo to collect tracking information. It sets a unique ID to embed videos to the website.|
Advertisement cookies are used to provide visitors with relevant ads and marketing campaigns. These cookies track visitors across websites and collect information to provide customized ads.
|_fbp||3 months||This cookie is set by Facebook to display advertisements when either on Facebook or on a digital platform powered by Facebook advertising, after visiting the website.|
|ANONCHK||10 minutes||The ANONCHK cookie, set by Bing, is used to store a user's session ID and also verify the clicks from ads on the Bing search engine. The cookie helps in reporting and personalization as well.|
|fr||3 months||Facebook sets this cookie to show relevant advertisements to users by tracking user behaviour across the web, on sites that have Facebook pixel or Facebook social plugin.|
|IDE||1 year 24 days||Used by Google DoubleClick and stores information about how the user uses the website and any other advertisement before visiting the website. This is used to present users with ads that are relevant to them according to the user profile.|
|MUID||1 year 24 days||Used by Microsoft as a unique identifier. The cookie is set by embedded Microsoft scripts. The purpose of this cookie is to synchronize the ID across many different Microsoft domains to enable user tracking.|
|OAID||1 year||This cookie is set when an AdsWizz website visitor have opted out the collection of information by AdsWizz service or opted to disable the targeted ads by AdsWizz.|
|test_cookie||15 minutes||This cookie is set by doubleclick.net. The purpose of the cookie is to determine if the user's browser supports cookies.|
|VISITOR_INFO1_LIVE||5 months 27 days||This cookie is set by Youtube. Used to track the information of the embedded YouTube videos on a website.|
|yt-remote-connected-devices||never||YouTube sets this cookie to store the video preferences of the user using embedded YouTube video.|
|yt-remote-device-id||never||YouTube sets this cookie to store the video preferences of the user using embedded YouTube video.|
|yt.innertube::nextId||never||This cookie, set by YouTube, registers a unique ID to store data on what videos from YouTube the user has seen.|
|yt.innertube::requests||never||This cookie, set by YouTube, registers a unique ID to store data on what videos from YouTube the user has seen.|
Other uncategorized cookies are those that are being analyzed and have not been classified into a category as yet.
|_clck||1 year||No description|
|_clsk||1 day||No description|
|_dc_gtm_UA-61748161-1||1 minute||No description|
|_ga_N02X64JKVD||2 years||No description|
|_hjSession_2051007||30 minutes||No description|
|_hjSessionUser_2051007||1 year||No description|
|_uetvid||1 year 24 days||No description|
|ad||never||No description available.|
|CONSENT||16 years 7 months 13 hours 29 minutes||No description|
|CX_254379340||1 year||No description|
|ep201||30 minutes||This cookie is set by the provider Surveymonkey. This cookie is used for statistical analysis and website optmization. It gathers information on user's interaction with the SurveyMonkey- Widget on thewebsite.|
|ep202||3 months||This cookie is set by the provider Surveymonkey. This cookie is used for statistical analysis and website optmization. It gathers information on user's interaction with the SurveyMonkey- Widget on thewebsite.|
|ep203||3 months||No description|
|SM||session||No description available.|